Flu (Influenza)

Flu (Influenza)

The flu is not the same as having a bad cold. The flu can be a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection. Flu immunisation every year offers the best protection.

Illustration by Dr Greta File. Property of KidsHealth. 

Illustration showing symptoms of influenza


Key points about the flu

  • the flu (influenza) can be a serious and sometimes life-threatening viral infection
  • it is not the same as having a bad cold
  • flu is very easy to catch so good hygiene is very important to reduce spread
  • even if your child is fit and healthy, they can easily catch the flu
  • flu immunisation every year offers the best protection
  • keep infected tamariki (children) away from other people and don't send your child to day care or school if they are unwell
  • contact your doctor if you are concerned about the severity of your child's symptoms, they are under 12 months old, or have a long-lasting (chronic) medical condition

See the KidsHealth page on flu immunisation

What is the flu?

Influenza, commonly called 'the flu', is an infection caused by the influenza virus. It affects the nose, throat, lungs and other parts of the body. The flu can be a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection. It infects many people every year, mostly during the winter months in New Zealand.

What are the signs and symptoms of the flu?

Flu in tamariki  usually causes at least 2 or 3 of the following symptoms:

  • a fever that starts suddenly (a temperature more than 38 degrees Celsius)
  • body aches or pains
  • headache
  • dry cough which may become moist
  • sore throat
  • low energy or fatigue
  • chills or shivering
  • runny or stuffy nose
  • upset tummy, vomiting or diarrhoea

Sometimes people confuse a cold with the flu. But with the flu, people are generally more unwell and flu symptoms may last longer.

Occasionally, flu can cause serious illness. This depends on the type of virus and a child's age and general health. The flu can be more serious in tamariki who also have a long-lasting (chronic) disease. Your doctor can give you more advice if your child has one of these conditions.

How easy is it to catch the flu?

The flu virus is very easy to catch and can affect anyone - it doesn't matter how fit and healthy your child is.

It can spread through the air by coughing and sneezing as well as by hands, cups and other objects that have been in contact with an infected person's mouth or nose.

Can I do anything to prevent my child catching the flu?

Flu immunisation every year

Flu immunisation offers the best protection.

Find out about flu immunisation

Other things you can do

You can also reduce the risk of catching the flu by washing hands, covering coughs and sneezes, cleaning surfaces and staying away from others who are sick.

Wash hands

Make sure everyone in your family washes their hands often and thoroughly, including (but not only) before preparing food and eating. Make sure everyone dries them well too. Soap and water for 20 seconds, then 20 seconds drying. Or use a hand sanitiser.

Cover coughs and sneezes

Cough or sneeze into your elbow or cover your mouth and nose with tissues. Put used tissues in the bin or a bag immediately and then wash and dry hands.

Clean surfaces

Regularly clean surfaces in the bathroom and the kitchen.

Stay away from people who are sick

Keep away from people who are sick.

If your child becomes sick, keep them at home and don't send them to school or daycare until they are well.

If you become sick - stay at home, don't go to work.

What is the treatment for the flu?

Most tamariki fight off the infection by themselves.

Antibiotics are not helpful for the flu and your doctor won't prescribe them unless your child also has a bacterial infection.

Never give your child or young person aspirin as this may increase the risk of Reye syndrome, which is a rare and serious illness.

Continue with your child's usual medicines (such as those for asthma, diabetes and epilepsy).

How can I care for my child with the flu at home?

If your child is miserable because of fever or aches and pains, you can give paracetamol to make them more comfortable. You must follow the dosage instructions on the bottle. It is dangerous to give more than the recommended dose.

Read about fever in children

Give your child regular fluids.

Use saltwater drops (saline) to treat a stuffy nose - ask your pharmacist or family doctor for instructions.

Keep your child at home and resting until they are well.

When should I seek help for my child with the flu?

When do I need to see a doctor?

Contact your doctor if you think your child has the flu and: 

  • is less than 12 months old
  • was born prematurely and is less than 2 years old
  • has been in hospital within the last 3 months
  • has a long-lasting (chronic) condition such as heart disease, cystic fibrosis or other lung condition, asthma, diabetes, an organ transplant, cancer or leukaemia

When should I see a doctor urgently?

You should see a doctor urgently if your child of any age:

  • is drinking less than half of their normal breastmilk or other fluid
  • is having fewer than 4 wet nappies in 24 hours
  • is severely irritable and is not wanting to be held
  • has trouble breathing, has noisy breathing or is breathing fast
  • looks unwell and you are concerned
  • has tummy pain, vomiting or diarrhoea and seems sicker than you would expect 
  • doesn't seem to be improving

Check out the signs that show your child might be struggling to breathe

When should I dial 111?

Dial 111 within New Zealand for urgent medical help (use the appropriate emergency number in other countries) if your child:

  • has blue lips and tongue
  • has severe difficulty breathing
  • has any episodes of irregular or stopping breathing
  • has a worrying rash especially one that does not go away when you press on it (see a photo of a meningococcal rash)
  • is unconscious or you can't wake them up properly

An online book for children

Autism Speaks in the USA have produced 'Everyone gets sick sometimes' (PDF, 1.23MB), an online book for children.

Thumbnail image of book cover for 'Everyone gets sick sometimes'


Illustration by Dr Greta File. Property of KidsHealth.

This page last reviewed 17 May 2021.

Call Healthline on 0800 611 116 any time of the day or night for free health advice when you need it